There are a couple of stories behind the King of Ayodhya- Raja Dashrath and Shani Bhagwan. The first one goes thus;
Emperor Dasaratha was the only person who called Lord Shaniswara for duel as he was to cross his country bringing drought and poverty. Lord Shaniswara extolled Dasaratha’s virtues and replied to him that “I can’t skip my duties but I’m pleased with your courage. Great sage Rishyasringa can help you.
“Wherever Rishyasringa lives, that country will have no drought and dryness”.
Dasaratha after receiving the blessings from Lord Shaniswara, wisely resolved the difficult situation by making Rishyasringa as his son-in-law. ‘Santha’, known to be daughter of Dasaratha, was married to Rishyasringa so that he is always present in Ayodhya. The second story and mythology says so;
Saturn enters the star constellation of Rohini once in every 30 years. This is one of the most dreaded transits of the kings and his kingdom. The scriptures say “Kings will die and kingdoms will fall when Shani enters Rohini”. Last time it entered Rohini on 22nd May 2001. On the night of 1st June 2001 the entire Royal family of Nepal was wiped out. It was followed by the death of the Indian Congress minister and Raja of Gwalior Sri Madhav Rao Scindia on 30th September 2001 in a plane crash.
It was during the reign of Raja Dashrath of Ayodhya Shani Dev was to do his Rohini Shakat Bedan and the outcome would have been a 12 year period of drought and famine in his kingdom of Ayodhya.
Raja Dashrath initially tried to defeat Lord shanidev, but failed and as Shani Dev is well-known as the Nyay Devta and the dispenser of Justice, Dashrath tries to appeal to him in all humility not to do Rohini Shakat Bedan. The ideal king realizes that the only way to avert the catastrophic drought and famine in his land is to evoke the kindness of Shani.
Raja Dashrath then composed a Stuthi or Couplets praising Shanidev, pleading for his kripa and benevolence. Widely known as Dashrath Uvach also known as Dashrath Stuti, the lyrical and evocative appeal of Dashrath pleased and moved to tears the Dispense of justice- Lord Shanidev, who then gave Raja Dashrath the vardaan or vow not to do the Rohini Shakat Bedan.
The Dashrath Uvach or Dashrath Uvach or the Dashrath Krit Shani Mantra/Stotra as the Sherlock is called, has its own purifying effect when viewed, read or heard on a Saturday. The devotee who repeats or sings the Dashrath Shani Uvach seated under a Peepal tree and donates black gram, iron, oil and black sesame to the poor will get relief in the trials he is put through in the Shani Mahadasha and Antar Dasha, even during Sade-Sati. He who repeats or recites the shlok will be blessed with abundance and well being and will never know scarcity.
Hence the Dasaratha Shani stotras are considered an excellent remedy for Saturn related troubles.
Dasaratha Shani Stotra from Padma Purana
Dhyaathwa Saraswatim Devim Gananatham Vinayakam.
Raja Dasharathah sthothram Saureridhamathakaroth.
Namo Neela mayukhaya Neelothpala nibhaya cha,
Namo Nirmaansa dehaaya Deergha shmashru jataaya cha,
Namo Vishaala nethraaya Shushkodhara bhayaanaka
Namah parushagathraya sthularomaaya Vai namah
Namo nithyam Kshudhaarthaaya Nithyathapthaya Vai namah
Namah Kaalaagni rupaaya Krthaanthaka namoshthuthe,
Nameste Kotaraakshaaya Durnireekshyaaya Vai namah
Namo Ghoraaya Raudraaya Bheeshanaaya Karaaline
Nameste Sarva bhakshaaya Valeemukha namosthuthe
Surya putra namestesthu bhaskare bhaya dhayaka
Adho-drushte namasthubhyam vapuhshyaama namosthuthe
Namo Manda-gathe thubhyam nisthrinshaaya namo namah
Thapasa dagdha-dehaya nithyam yogarathaya cha
Namesthe gyaana nethraya kashyapathmaja sunave
Thushto dadasi Vai raajyam rushto harasi Thathkshanaath
Devaasura manushyaashcha pasupakshisareesrpaah
Thvaya vilokithaah saure dainyamaashu Vrjanti cha
Brahmaa shakro yamashchaiva rishayah saptha-tharakaah
Rajya bhrashtaashcha t’e sarve thava drishtyaa vilokithaah
Deshaa nagara graamaa dweepashechai vaadrayasththaa
Raudra Dhrushtyaa t’u ye drushtaah kshayam gacchanti thath kshanaath
Prasaadam Kuru me saure varaartheham thavaashrithah
Saure kshamasvaaparaadham sarvabhutha hithaayacha